Sep 25

Server send push notifications to client browser without polling

Reading time: 5 – 8 minutes

Nowadays last version of browsers support websockets and it’s a good a idea to use them to connect to server a permanent channel and receive push notifications from server. In this case I’m going to use Mosquitto (MQTT) server behind lighttpd with mod_websocket as notifications server. Mosquitto is a lightweight MQTT server programmed in C and very easy to set up. The best advantage to use MQTT is the possibility to create publish/subscriber queues and it’s very useful when you want to have more than one notification channel. As is usual in pub/sub services we can subscribe the client to a well-defined topic or we can use a pattern to subscribe to more than one topic. If you’re not familiarized with MQTT now it’s the best moment to read a little bit about because that interesting protocol. It’s not the purpose of this post to explain MQTT basics.

A few weeks ago I set up the next architecture just for testing that idea:


weboscket gateway to mosquitto mqtt server with javascrit mqtt client

The browser

Now it’s time to explain this proof of concept. HTML page will contain a simple Javascript code which calls mqttws31.js library from Paho. This Javascript code will connect to the server using secure websockets. It doesn’t have any other security measure for a while may be in next posts I’ll explain some interesting ideas to authenticate the websocket. At the end of the post you can download all source code and configuration files. But now it’s time to understand the most important parts of the client code.

client = new Messaging.Client("ns.example.tld", 443, "unique_client_id");
client.onConnectionLost = onConnectionLost;
client.onMessageArrived = onMessageArrived;
client.connect({onSuccess:onConnect, onFailure:onFailure, useSSL:true});

Last part is very simple, the client connects to the server and links some callbacks to defined functions. Pay attention to ‘useSSL’ connect option is used to force SSL connection with the server.

There are two specially interesting functions linked to callbacks, the first one is:

function onConnect() {
  client.subscribe("/news/+/sport", {qos:1,onSuccess:onSubscribe,onFailure:onSubscribeFailure});

As you can imagine this callback will be called when the connections is established, when it happens the client subscribes to all channels called ‘/news/+/sports’, for example, ‘/news/europe/sports/’ or ‘/news/usa/sports/’, etc. We can also use, something like ‘/news/#’ and it will say we want to subscribe to all channels which starts with ‘/news/’. If only want to subscribe to one channel put the full name of the channel on that parameter. Next parameter are dictionary with quality of service which is going to use and links two more callbacks.

The second interesting function to understand is:

function onMessageArrived(message) {

It’s called when new message is received from the server and in this example, the message is printed in console with log method.

The server

I used an Ubuntu 12.04 server with next extra repositories:

# lighttpd + mod_webserver
deb precise main
deb-src precise main

# mosquitto
deb precise main
deb-src precise main

With these new repositories you can install required packages:

apt-get install lighttpd lighttpd-mod-websocket mosquitto mosquitto-clients

After installation it’s very easy to run mosquitto in test mode, use a console for that and write the command: mosquitto, we have to see something like this:

# mosquitto
1379873664: mosquitto version 1.2.1 (build date 2013-09-19 22:18:02+0000) starting
1379873664: Using default config.
1379873664: Opening ipv4 listen socket on port 1883.
1379873664: Opening ipv6 listen socket on port 1883.

The configuration file for lighttpd in testing is:

server.modules = (

websocket.server = (
        "/mqtt" => ( 
                "host" => "",
                "port" => "1883",
                "type" => "bin",
                "subproto" => "mqttv3.1"

server.document-root        = "/var/www"
server.upload-dirs          = ( "/var/cache/lighttpd/uploads" )
server.errorlog             = "/var/log/lighttpd/error.log"             = "/var/run/"
server.username             = "www-data"
server.groupname            = "www-data"
server.port                 = 80

$SERVER["socket"] == ":443" {
    ssl.engine = "enable" 
    ssl.pemfile = "/etc/lighttpd/certs/sample-certificate.pem" = "ns.example.tld"

Remember to change ‘ssl.pemfile’ for your real certificate file and ‘’ for your real server name. Then restart the lighttpd and validate SSL configuration using something like:

openssl s_client -host ns.example.tld -port 443

You have to see SSL negotiation and then you can try to send HTTP commands, for example: “GET / HTTP/1.0” or something like this. Now the server is ready.

The Test

Now you have to load the HTML test page in your browser and validate how the connections is getting the server and then how the mosquitto console says how it receives the connection. Of course, you can modify the Javascript code to print more log information and follow how the client is connected to MQTT server and how it is subscribed to the topic pattern.

If you want to publish something in MQTT server we could use the CLI, with a command mosquitto_pub:

mosquitto_pub -h ns.example.tld -t '/news/europe/sport' -m 'this is the message about european sports'

Take a look in your browser Javascript consle you have to see how the client prints the message on it. If it fails, review the steps and debug each one to solve the problem. If you need help leave me a message. Of course, you can use many different ways to publish messages, for example, you could use python code to publish messages in MQTT server. In the same way you could subscribe not only browsers to topics, for example, you could subscribe a python code:

import mosquitto

def on_connect(mosq, obj, rc):
    print("rc: "+str(rc))

def on_message(mosq, obj, msg):
    print(msg.topic+" "+str(msg.qos)+" "+str(msg.payload))

def on_publish(mosq, obj, mid):
    print("mid: "+str(mid))

def on_subscribe(mosq, obj, mid, granted_qos):
    print("Subscribed: "+str(mid)+" "+str(granted_qos))

def on_log(mosq, obj, level, string):

mqttc = mosquitto.Mosquitto("the_client_id")
mqttc.on_message = on_message
mqttc.on_connect = on_connect
mqttc.on_publish = on_publish
mqttc.on_subscribe = on_subscribe

mqttc.connect("ns.example.tld", 1883, 60)
mqttc.subscribe("/news/+/sport", 0)

rc = 0
while rc == 0:
    rc = mqttc.loop()

Pay attention to server port, it isn’t the ‘https’ port (443/tcp) because now the code is using a real MQTT client. The websocket gateway isn’t needed.

The files

  • mqtt.tar.gz – inside this tar.gz you can find all referenced files
May 28

A pair of themes for ExtJS

Reading time: 1 – 2 minutes

I’m a ExtJS JavaScript framework believer, but there other interesting and famous JavaScript frameworks like Bootstrap and jQuery. IMHO ExtJS is more focused on web applications than public web. In this post I want to share two ExtJS themes that helps to improve UI look and feel.

The first one is a bootstrap look and feel for ExtJS:


if you want to test it take a look to demo site. The theme is opensource and you can find the source in github.

The second and last one is Clifton theme.


IMHO is a nice theme although it’s not really free. It costs around 320€, but in some professional projects it could be a really low price if you consider the effort to get a professional look and feel . You can try it in demo page.

Oct 11

Some recommendations about RESTful API design

Reading time: 4 – 6 minutes

I want to recommend to you to watch the YouTube video called RESTful API design of Brian Mulloy. In this post I make an small abstract of the most important ideas of the video, of course from my point of view:

  • Use concrete plural nouns when you are defining resources.
  • Resource URL has to be focused in access collection of elements and specific element. Example:
    • /clients – get all clients
    • /clients/23 – get the client with ID 23
  • Map HTTP methods to maintein elements (CRUD):
    • GET – READ
    • PUT – UPDATE
  • Workaround, if your REST client doesn’t support HTTP methods, use a parameter called ‘method’ could be a good idea. For example, when you have to use a method HTTP PUT it could be changed by method HTTP GET and the parameter ‘method=put’ in the URL.
  • Sweep complexity behind the ‘?’. Use URL parameters to filter or put some optional information to your request.
  • How to manage errors:
    • Use HTTP response codes to refer error codes. You can find a list of HTTP response codes  in Wikipedia.
    • JSON response example can be like this:
      { 'message':'problem description', 'more_info':'http://api.domain.tld/errors/12345' }
    • Workaround, if REST client doesn’t know how to capture HTTP error codes and raise up an error losing the control of the client, you can use HTTP response code 200 and put ‘response_code’ field in JSON response object. It’s a good idea use this feature as optional across URL parameter ‘supress_response_code=true’.
  • Versioning the API. Use a literal ‘v’ followed by an integer number before the resource reference in the URL. It could be the most simple and powerful solution in this case. Example: /v1/clients/
  • The selection of what information will be returned in the response can be defined in the URL parameters, like in this example: /clients/23?fields=name,address,city
  • Pagination of the response. Use the parameters ‘limit’ and ‘offset’, keep simple. Example: ?limit=10&offset=0
  • Format of the answer, in this case I’m not completely agree with Brian. I prefer to use HTTP header ‘Accept’ than his proposal. Anyway both ideas are:
    • Use HTTP header ‘Accept’ with proper format request in the answer, for example, ‘Accept: application/json’ when you want a JSON response.
    • or, use extension ‘.json’ in URL request to get the response in JSON format.
  • Use Javascript format for date and time information, when you are formatting JSON objects.
  • Sometimes APIs need to share actions. Then we can’t define an action with a noun, in this case use verb. Is common to need actions like: convert, translate, calculate, etc.
  • Searching, there are two cases:
    • Search inside a resource, in this case use parameters to apply filters.
    • Search across multiple resource, here is useful to create the resource ‘search’.
  • Count elements inside a resource, simply add ‘/count’ after the resource. Example: /clients/count
  • As far as you can use a single base URL for all API resources, something like this: ‘http://api.domain.tld’.
  • Authentication, simply use OAuth 2.0
  • To keep your API KISS usually it’s a good idea develop SDK in several languages, where you can put more high level features than in API.
  • Inside an application each resource has its own API but it’s not a good idea publish it to the world, maybe use a virtual API in a layer above it’s more secure and powerful.


Jun 21

My Workspace

Reading time: 2 – 2 minutes

Aquest és el meu entorn de treball a dia d’avui, de fet, he volgut mostrar-lo perquè volia provar de fer una petita integració entre jquery-notes i wordpress. Ja que jo diria que malgrat aquesta funcionalitat és típica de flickr quan s’exporten imatges des d’aquest sistema al nostre blog les notes de la imatge es perden. Així doncs, he pensat que era una bona idea tenir el meu propi sistema de posar notes a les imatges.
La cosa ha estat senzilla només:

  • he creat un directori al servidor del blog on he posat el jquery-notes, jquery-ui i jquery he posat els permisos corresponents als directoris.
  • he modificat les headers del wordpress perquè incloguin el codi de jquery-notes, jquery-ui i jquery. A més del CSS propi del jquery-notes i un petit script per declarar el comportament de jquery sobre la classe “jquery-note”.
  • després al crear un article amb la imatge i afegir-li la classe “jquery-note” automàticament s’afegeixen les notes que li he posat a la imatge.
  • per posar-li notes a les imatges calen els paràmetres corresponents al script afegit a les headers del wordpress.

UPDATE: casualment avui al blog: freelance switch han pubilcat un article amb diversos workspaces.

Feb 08

FireBug: complement del firefox perfecte pels programadors de webs

Reading time: 3 – 4 minutes

Pensava que la extenció web developer toolbar del firefox era la bomba, però avui l’Ernest m’ha obert els ulls. Realment el Firebug li dona mil patades. És realment impresionant. El meu no és programar web ni molt menys varallar-me sovint amb els CSS, JavaScript ni HTMLs. Però sovint quan programes aplicacions ASP una eina d’aquestes t’estalvia moltes hores de feina. Per exemple, el model de templates que usa symfony no seria precisament un model WYSIWYG. Així doncs, quan toca escriure codi pelat, el Firebug ens pot fer anar molt al gra. La veritat és que l’Oriol ho hagués agraït en algún moment en que depurava un codi JavaScript, oi Oriol?


Les funcions del Firebug són tantes que fa fins hi tot mandre repassar-les, però en faré una breu llista a base de copy/paste:

  • Firebug is always just a keystroke away, but it never gets in your way. You can open Firebug in a separate window, or as a bar at the bottom of your browser. Firebug also gives you fine-grained control over which websites you want to enable it for.
  • Inspect and edit HTML Firebug makes it simple to find HTML elements buried deep in the page. Once you’ve found what you’re looking for, Firebug gives you a wealth of information, and lets you edit the HTML live.
  • Tweak CSS to perfection Firebug’s CSS tabs tell you everything you need to know about the styles in your web pages, and if you don’t like what it’s telling you, you can make changes and see them take effect instantly.
  • Visualize CSS metrics When your CSS boxes aren’t lining up correctly it can be difficult to understand why. Let Firebug be your eyes and it will measure and illustrate all the offsets, margins, borders, padding, and sizes for you.
  • Monitor network activity Your pages are taking a long time to load, but why? Did you go crazy and write too much JavaScript? Did you forget to compress your images? Are your ad partner’s servers taking a siesta? Firebug breaks it all down for you file-by-file.
  • Debug and profile JavaScript Firebug includes a powerful JavaScript debugger that lets you pause execution at any time and have look at the state of the world. If your code is a little sluggish, use the JavaScript profiler to measure performance and find bottlenecks fast.
  • Quickly find errors When things go wrong, Firebug lets you know immediately and gives you detailed and useful information about errors in JavaScript, CSS, and XML.
  • Explore the DOM The Document Object Model is a great big hierarchy of objects and functions just waiting to be tickled by JavaScript. Firebug helps you find DOM objects quickly and then edit them on the fly.
  • Execute JavaScript on the fly The command line is one of the oldest tools in the programming toolbox. Firebug gives you a good ol’ fashioned command line for JavaScript complete with very modern amenities.
  • Logging for JavaScript Having a fancy JavaScript debugger is great, but sometimes the fastest way to find bugs is just to dump as much information to the console as you can. Firebug gives you a set of powerful logging functions that help you get answers fast.
Aug 04

symfony: interficies amb tabs de forma molt senzilla

Reading time: 1 – 2 minutes

L’últim snippet que han pujat al repositori de symfony és un somni fet realitat. Sempre m’ha fet molta ràbia haver de montar-me un sistema de tabbing per una interficie web (UI web) i el que ens proposa aquest snippet és un helper que permet cridar una llibreria anomenada Tab Pane (llicència web 2.0) que a través de javascript modifica els objectes DOM de la pàgina web i ens permet treballar amb uns tabuladors molt ràpids. A més fins hi tot suporta diferents aspectes. Realment una forma molt còmode i senzilla de treballar amb interficies tabulades.


Doncs tornant a l’snippet de symfony podem cridar el helper i començar a usar el codi de forma ben senzilla, a la pròpia descripció en podeu veure un exemple. Doneu-hi un cop d’ull a Helper for Javascript Tabbed Panes. Com és obvi recordeu que aquest helper s’ha d’invocar des de la vista (template).

Aug 04

aptana: eina professional per programar UI Web

Reading time: 2 – 2 minutes

aptana esta disponible per Mac, Windows, Linux i fins hi tot com a plug-in per l’Eclipse. Així doncs es tracta d’una eina que ens ajudarà a programar. Com ja posava en el títol esta orientada a la creació d’interficies d’usuari via web. Ralment és per gent molt i molt professionals, abstenir-se principiants. Ja que li treurem realment el suc quan treballem amb JavaScript, AJAX, Yahoo UI, CSS, Dojo Javascript library, etc. De fet no em declaro ni usuari de l’eina ni segurament futur usuari de la mateixa, però això no treu que després de veure els screencast que té l’eina m’hagi caigut la baba i hagi sabut apreciar la gran feina que s’ha fet per crear una eina com aquesta.


Per si tot això fos poc es tracta d’una eina OpenSource i com ja he dit multiplataforma. L’aspecte gràfic esta molt acurat i a més suporta força navegadors per comprobar que el codi que anem programant és compatible en tots ells. Com passa en tots els projectes vanguardistes també disposa d’un blog des d’on podeu anar seguint les millores que va tenint el programa, ja que ara mateix només hi ha disponible la versió beta.

Jul 27

symfony: Problemes de javascript

Reading time: 1 – 2 minutes


Symfony usa prototype com a framework de JavaScript. Malgrat la potència del projecte té un petit problema de disseny que ens dona problemes quan intentem integrar el nostre codi fet en prototype/symfony amb codi JavaScript de tercers. De fet, el problema de disseny és molt senzill prototype exten dues classes bàsiques de JavaScript: Object i Array ambdues són classes molt bàsiques i sovint usades en qualsevol script així doncs quan aquest codi intenta usar aquestes classes bàsiques al estar exteses no tenen el comportament habitual, així doncs el codi d’aquestes persones s’ha d’adaptar per suportar les modificacions de prototype. Així doncs, si això no és possible tindrem un problema d’incompatibilitat entre codis.

Si voleu més detalls tèncis sobre el problema l’Oriol m’ha passat un parell d’enllaços es raona el problema: