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with the J2EETM Platform, Second Edition

4.4 Web-Tier Application Framework Design

Model-View-Controller ("MVC") is the BluePrints recommended architectural design pattern for interactive applications. MVC, described in Chapter 11, organizes an interactive application into three separate modules: one for the application model with its data representation and business logic, the second for views that provide data presentation and user input, and the third for a controller to dispatch requests and control flow. Most Web-tier application frameworks use some variation of the MVC design pattern.

The MVC design pattern provides a host of design benefits. MVC separates design concerns (data persistence and behavior, presentation, and control), decreasing code duplication, centralizing control, and making the application more easily modifiable. MVC also helps developers with different skill sets to focus on their core skills and collaborate through clearly defined interfaces. For example, a J2EE application project may include developers of custom tags, views, application logic, database functionality, and networking. An MVC design can centralize control of such application facilities as security, logging, and screen flow. New data sources are easy to add to an MVC application by creating code that adapts the new data source to the view API. Similarly, new client types are easy to add by adapting the new client type to operate as an MVC view. MVC clearly defines the responsibilities of participating classes, making bugs easier to track down and eliminate.

This section describes how to use MVC to organize a J2EE Web application design using the sample application's Web Application Framework design as an example. Many of the key classes described (the controller, the templating service, the abstract action class, and so on) are usable for any application, not just for an online shopping application.

A J2EE application's Web tier serves HTTP requests. At the highest level, the Web tier does four basic things in a specific order: interprets client requests, dispatches those requests to business logic, selects the next view for display, and generates and delivers the next view. (See Figure 4.2.)

Figure 4.2 The Web-Tier Service Cycle

The Web-tier controller receives each incoming HTTP request and invokes the requested business logic operation in the application model. Based on the results of the operation and state of the model, the controller then selects the next view to display. Finally, the controller generates the selected view and transmits it to the client for presentation.

Figure 4.2 is deceptively simple. An enterprise application's Web tier commonly has the following requirements:

The BluePrints best practice is to implement the Web tier of a J2EE enterprise application using an appropriate Web application framework. (See Section 4.4.5 on page 114.) The next several sections describe the general design of a J2EE application Web tier. If you choose to use a Web application framework, the following discussion will help you to understand what the framework does and how to use it. If you write your own Web-tier architectural code, the following design discussions will help you make educated decisions about how to use the technology.

4.4.1 Structuring the Web Tier

Overall structure is the most important consideration in a Web-tier design. Both the sample application and the various existing Web application frameworks implement some form of "Model 2" architecture, where a servlet manages client communication and business logic execution, and presentation resides mainly in JSP pages.

The literature on Web-tier technology in the J2EE platform frequently uses the terms "Model 1" and "Model 2" without explanation. This terminology stems from early drafts of the JSP specification, which described two basic usage patterns for JSP pages. While the terms have disappeared from the specification document, they remain in common use. Model 1 and Model 2 simply refer to the absence or presence (respectively) of a controller servlet that dispatches requests from the client tier and selects views.

A Model 1 architecture consists of a Web browser directly accessing Web-tier JSP pages. The JSP pages access Web-tier JavaBeans that represent the application model, and the next view to display (JSP page, servlet, HTML page, and so on) is determined either by hyperlinks selected in the source document or by request parameters. A Model 1 application control is decentralized, because the current page being displayed determines the next page to display. In addition, each JSP page or servlet processes its own inputs (parameters from GET or POST). In some Model 1 architectures, choosing the next page to display occurs in scriptlet code, but this usage is considered poor form. (See the design guideline Section on page 89.)

A Model 2 architecture introduces a controller servlet between the browser and the JSP pages or servlet content being delivered. The controller centralizes the logic for dispatching requests to the next view based on the request URL, input parameters, and application state. The controller also handles view selection, which decouples JSP pages and servlets from one another. Model 2 applications are easier to maintain and extend, because views do not refer to each other directly. The Model 2 controller servlet provides a single point of control for security and logging, and often encapsulates incoming data into a form usable by the back-end MVC model. For these reasons, the Model 2 architecture is recommended for most interactive applications.

An MVC application framework can greatly simplify implementing a Model 2 application. Application frameworks such as Apache Struts and JavaServer FacesTM (see Section 4.4.5 on page 114) include a configurable front controller servlet, and provide abstract classes that can be extended to handle request dispatches. Some frameworks include macro languages or other tools that simplify application construction.

The Model 1 architecture can provide a more lightweight design for small, static applications. Model 1 architecture is suitable for applications that have very simple page flow, have little need for centralized security control or logging, and change little over time. Model 1 applications can often be refactored to Model 2 when application requirements change. When to Switch from Model 1 to Model 2

JSP pages in a Model 1 application that use scripting elements, custom tags, or JavaScript to forward requests should be refactored to Model 2.

A Model 1 architecture is best when the page navigation is simple and fixed, and when a simple directory structure can represent the structure of the pages in the application. Such applications usually embed the page flow information in the links between the pages. The presence of forward in a JSP page implies that logic embedded in the page is making a decision about the next page to display.

Over time, as the application grows and changes, page flow logic accumulates. The application becomes difficult to maintain because the page flow logic is distributed across multiple pages. The best time to switch from Model 1 to Model 2 is before this maintenance problem arises. This is why it's usually best to choose Model 2 from the outset, basing the application on an existing Web controller framework that best meets application requirements. Model 1 remains a viable option for simple, static applications.

4.4.2 Web-Tier MVC Controller Design

The Model 2 architecture uses servlets for processing requests and selecting views. The Front Controller architectural design pattern centralizes an application's request processing and view selection in a single component. Each type of Web client sends requests to and receives responses from a single URL, simplifying client development. The Front Controller receives requests from the client and dispatches them to the application model. This single point of dispatch makes the Front Controller a logical place for such global facilities as security and logging. The Front Controller also selects and formats the next client view. The controller is also an application of the Mediator pattern, because it decouples view components from one another.

In the J2EE platform, a Front Controller is typically implemented as a servlet. The sample application's Front Controller servlet handles all HTTP requests. The user views, discussed in the next section, are mostly JSP pages chosen by the Front Controller. Web-Tier Controller Design

A Web-tier MVC controller maps incoming requests to operations on the application model, and selects views based on model and session state. Web-tier controllers have a lot of duties, so they require careful design to manage complexity. Because most enterprise applications grow over time, extensibility is an important requirement. This section describes some strategies for the internal structure of a controller in the Web tier, illustrated by example code adapted from the Web Application Framework, part of the BluePrints sample application. Identifying the Operation to Perform

When a controller receives an HTTP request, it needs to be able to distinguish what application operation is being requested. How can the client, for example, request that the server create a new user? There are several ways to indicate to the server which operation to perform. The more common methods include:

Of the three options discussed here, the BluePrints recommendation is to use servlet mappings when they are available. Servlet mappings provide the most flexible way to control where to route URLs based on patterns in the URLs. Most Web application frameworks (see Section 4.4.5 on page 114) use servlet mappings to direct requests to the appropriate front controller for an application.

The sample application uses a servlet mapping to handle request URLs. The servlet container maps all request URLs matching *.do to the main Web-tier controller servlet, Another servlet mapping routes all URLs matching *.screen to the templating service, which assembles composite views. Invoking Model Methods

Once the controller has determined which operation to perform, it must invoke the corresponding application model method with parameters derived from the request. A naive controller design might use a large if-then-else statement, as shown in Code Example 4.6.

if (op.equals("createUser")) {
} else if (op.equals("changeUserInfo") {
  // ... and so on...

Code Example 4.6 A Poorly Designed Controller

The if-then-else approach leads to a very large service method, which is difficult to read and still more difficult to maintain. A better approach is to use the Command pattern. The sample application defines an abstract class Action, which represents a single application model operation. A controller can look up concrete Action subclasses by name and delegate requests to them. Sample code for the abstract class Action and a concrete class CreateUserAction appears in Code Example 4.7.

public abstract class Action {
  protected Model model;
  public Action(Model model) { this.model = model; }
  public abstract String getName();
  public abstract Object perform(HttpServletRequest req);

public class CreateUserAction extends Action {
  public CreateUserAction(Model model) {
  public String getName() { return "createUser"; }
  public Object perform(HttpServletRequest req) {
    return model.createUser(req.getAttribute("user"),

Code Example 4.7 An Abstract Action Class and a Concrete Subclass

Code Example 4.7 defines an abstract class Action, which has a name and a perform method that executes a model method corresponding to the name. For example, Action's concrete subclass CreateUserAction has the name "createUser". Its perform method invokes the model method createUser using parameters extracted from the HTTP request.

public class ControllerServlet extends HttpServlet {
  private HashMap actions;
  public void init() throws ServletException {
    actions = new HashMap();
    CreateUserAction cua = new CreateUserAction(model);
    actions.put(cua.getName(), cua);
    //... create and add more actions
  public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req,
             HttpServletResponse resp)
    throws IOException, ServletException {

    // First identify operation "op" from URL.
    // method getOperation() is defined elsewhere.
    String op = getOperation(req.getRequestURL());
    // Then find and execute corresponding Action
    Action action = (Action)actions.get(op);
    Object result = null;
    try {
        result = action.perform(req);
    } catch (NullPointerException npx) {
        //... handle error condition: no such action
    // ... Use result to determine next view (see next section)
//... other methods...

Code Example 4.8 Using a Map to Identify and Execute Actions

Code Example 4.8 shows a controller servlet that maintains a hash map of Action objects, each indexed by its name. When the servlet loads, the servlet container calls the method init, which fills the hash map with Action objects that invoke model operations. The hash map key is the name of the operation. Each time the servlet's service method receives a request, it identifies the name of the operation to perform, looks up the corresponding Action in the hash map, and executes it by invoking the Action's perform method. The Action returns a result object that the servlet uses, along with other data, to decide which view to display next. When this controller receives a request containing the name createUser, it finds an instance of CreateUserAction in the hash map. It then invokes the Action's perform method, which uses the model to create a user (as shown in Code Example 4.7).

The code samples shown in this section are greatly simplified for clarity. The Web Application Framework used by the sample application provides a full, working example of this sort of controller called MainServlet. The servlet container dispatches requests with a servlet mapping: it forwards all URLs matching *.do to the MainServlet. Code Example 4.8 demonstrates how to provide an extensible framework for dispatching client requests.

The sample application improves the extensibility of the servlet code in Code Example 4.8 even further by externalizing the map of requests to actions. The controller in the sample application initializes the actions hash map from an external XML file, which contains pairs of operation names and corresponding Action class names. The controller servlet initializes the action map with the request names and action classes referred to in the XML file. The XML file is deployed as a resource in the Web application archive. Adding a new Action is as simple as adding a concrete Action subclass to the application archive and defining a configuration file mapping that associates the request URL with the action class. An example of such a mapping appears in Code Example 4.9. With no code modification, the sample application controller servlet can dispatch requests using actions that did not even exist when the controller was written.

Dispatching service requests to the application model is only half of the Web-tier controller's job. It is also responsible for determining the next view to display. Controlling Dynamic Screen Flow

The succession of views that a Web application user sees is called screen flow. A Web-tier controller controls screen flow by selecting the next view a user sees. In static Web sites, screens (usually Web pages) are statically linked to one another. By contrast, a controller dynamically chooses the "next" screen in response to both user actions and model operation results.

In this section, the term "view" means a Web resource with a URL from which Web content is available. A view might be a JSP page, a servlet, static content, or some combination of the three, assembled into a page. Typically, the "next" view to display depends on one or more of:

For example, the next view to display after a sign on view very likely depends on:

The controller uses this data to determine which view to display next. A Web controller "displays a view" by forwarding the request to a JSP page, servlet, or other component that renders the view in a format compatible with the client; for example, returning HTML to a browser.

The controller in the sample application uses two components to select and generate views: a screen flow manager, which selects the next view to display; and a templating service, which actually generates the view content. The controller uses the screen flow manager to select a view, and forwards the request to the templating service, which assembles and delivers a view to the client. Both the screen flow manager and the templating servlet are generic components that are usable in any Web application. The component-based design reduces component coupling, promoting code reuse and simplifying the controller design.

Figure 4.3 Web-Tier Controller OID

Figure 4.3 is an object interaction diagram that shows the Web-tier controller interacting with other Web-tier classes. The diagram shows the following sequence of calls:

  1. The controller receives a POST from the client.
  2. The controller creates an Action corresponding to the requested operation (as described in the previous section).
  3. The controller calls the Action's perform method.
  4. perform calls a model business method.
  5. The controller calls the screen flow manager to select the next view to display.
  6. The screen flow manager determines the next view and returns its name to the controller.
  7. The controller forwards the request to the templating service, which assembles and delivers the selected view to the client.

Most request URLs map to a specific view URL. For example, the screen flow map can define that the view signoff.screen always follows request URL / Sometimes the next screen to display depends on model operation results, server-side state, or user activity. For example, the next view following the request URL /, which signs a user into the system, depends on whether the sign in operation succeeded.

In the sample application, an application assembler configures the screen flow manager with an XML-based file called a screen flow map. The screen flow map defines a next view name for each request URL. For dynamic view selection, a screen flow map can also map a request URL to a flow handler, which is a Java class that selects the next view programmatically. Flow handlers are typically written by component providers or application assemblers. Example

The Web Application Framework screen flow map mappings.xml configures the screen flow manager. Sample application Code Example 4.9 shows a URL action mapping that uses a flow handler to determine the next view in code.

<url-mapping url="" screen="signoff.screen">

Code Example 4.9 Excerpt from the Sample Application Screen Flow Map

In Code Example 4.9, the url-mapping element defines a mapping for request URL / The action element declares an action of class Signoff-HTMLAction, which performs the business logic for this URL (signing off a user). An application assembler or a component provider wrote the action class SignoffHTMLAction to sign a user off of the application. The screen attribute tells the screen flow manager to display screen signoff.screen after the action completes.

Figure 4.4 shows the result of an HTTP POST to the URL /

Figure 4.4 OID of POST to Flow Handler Defined in Code Example 4.9

The servlet container deployment descriptor has a servlet mapping from pattern *.do to the controller, so when a client POSTs a request to /, the following actions occur:

  1. The servlet container routes the request to the controller.
  2. The controller creates an instance class SignoffHTMLAction and passes the request to it.
  3. The controller calls the SignoffHTMLAction's perform method.
  4. The SignoffHTMLAction object calls the model method that signs the user out of the application.
  5. The controller asks the screen flow manager for the next view.
  6. The controller forwards the request to the URL signoff.screen.
  7. The templating servlet generates and delivers the requested view (a templated JSP page) to the client, so the user receives a view indicating that signoff succeeded.

The last piece of the puzzle not yet explained is how to map a view name in the design just described to an actual Web component (JSP page, servlet, and so on). Views and templating are discussed in Section 4.4.3 on page 110. Serving Multiple Client Types

Web applications may support only one type of client with a single protocol, or multiple clients with different protocols, security policies, presentation logic, and workflows. Web clients may include several versions of a few different browsers, MIDP clients, so-called "rich" clients with stand-alone APIs, and Web service interfaces. Long-lived applications may need to be able to handle new types of Web clients.

Each type of client needs its own controller, which specializes in the protocols for that client type. A particular type of client may also need different presentation components for form factor or other reasons.

Following are some options for how to service requests from clients that use different application-level protocols. (Web-tier clients use HTTP for transport.) Each of the following alternatives expands upon Figure 4.2 by adding flexibility and increasing complexity.

Figure 4.5 Using a Front Controller to Handle Browser Interaction

Applications with a single client type can implement a single front controller. For example, a browser-only application is shown in Figure 4.5. Its single Front Controller servlet receives HTTP requests from the browser, translates the contents of these requests into operations on the application model, and serves views of result data as HTML (or XML). Additional controllers can support new client types, as shown in Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6 Supporting Multiple Client Types with Multiple Controllers

The multiple-controller approach in Figure 4.6 provides extensibility for any future Web client types, including those that do not yet exist. In fact, because servlets aren't limited to HTTP, this architecture can support even non-Web clients. Each controller can implement the workflow, presentation logic, and security constraints unique to its client type. Notice also that the code implementing the application model is shared by all of the controllers. This separation of model and controller ensures identical application behavior across client types and eases maintenance and testing.

Some application functionality, particularly security, can be easier to manage from a single point. Introducing a protocol router, as shown in Figure 4.7, can provide a single point of control for all Web clients, each of which still retain their own controllers.

Figure 4.7 Using a Protocol Router for Centralized Control

The protocol router in Figure 4.7 is either a servlet or servlet filter that determines the client type and dispatches the request to the appropriate controller. The router typically uses the HTTP header User-agent to determine what sort of client is requesting service. The protocol router can implement application-wide functionality such as security or logging. The client-specific controllers can implement behavior specific to each client's particular protocol.

The Front Controllers in Figure 4.7 may or may not be servlets. If the Front Controllers are servlets, the protocol router dispatches requests to them using RequestDispatcher.forward. If the protocol router is a servlet, the Front Controllers can be a layer of simple objects to which the router delegates request processing.

Note that the controller alternatives shown in the last few figures can be implemented incrementally. Each of the approaches can be built on the preceding one. The BluePrints recommendation is to adopt and adapt the alternative that most closely matches current application requirements, and add new functionality as necessary.

Templating is an application of the Composite View design pattern, discussed in Chapter 11, which builds a page from a number of independent view components.

4.4.3 Web-Tier MVC View Design

MVC views display data produced by the MVC model. View components (also known as "presentation components") in the Web tier are usually JSP pages and servlets, along with such static resources as HTML pages, PDF files, graphics, and so on. JSP pages are best used for generating text-based content, often HTML or XML. Servlets are most appropriate for generating binary content or content with variable structure. (For an in-depth explanation of appropriate technology usage, see Section on page 82 and Section on page 86.)

HTML browsers are very lightweight clients, so the Web tier generates and often styles dynamic content for browsers. Heavyweight clients can implement relatively more view functionality in the Client tier, and less in the Web tier. Such clients include stand-alone rich clients, application clients, and clients that use special content formats such as MacroMedia Flash or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Web-tier components are not limited to serving HTML-over-HTTP Web browsers. The Web tier may also serve MIDP clients using proprietary protocols, rich clients using XML, or Web service peers requesting services with Electronic Business XML (ebXML) or Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages. Each of these examples uses a different application-level protocol, while using HTTP for transport. A properly designed Web tier unifies access to application functionality for any client type. The Web tier also provides virtual session management for some client types.

See Chapter 3 for more on J2EE client technologies. Templating

One typical application requirement is that application views have a common layout. A template is a presentation component that composes separate subviews into a page with a specific layout. Each subview, such as a banner, a navigation bar, or document body content, is a separate component. Views that share a template have the same layout, because the template controls the layout.

For example, Figure 4.8 shows the layout of a single page created by a template. Across the top of the page is a banner, on the left is a navigation menu, a footer appears at the bottom, and the body content occupies the remaining space.

Figure 4.8 A Template Composes Other Views into a Consistent Layout

Using templates in an application design centralizes control of the overall layout of pages in the application, easing maintenance. Changing the layout in the template file changes the page layout for the entire application. More importantly, the individual subviews (like the "Navigation Menu" in Figure 4.8) are used by reference in the template instead of by copy-and-paste. Therefore, changing a subview means changing a single source file instead of changing all the files in which that subview occurs.

Template implementation is most easily explained by example. In the sample application, a JSP page called a template file specifies the page layout. The template file is a standard JSP page that uses custom tags to include subviews into each area of the page. The template references the individual subviews by name.

Code Example 4.10 is an example from the sample application that produces the layout shown in Figure 4.8. This file, called template.jsp, is a JSP page that produces HTML. The file specifies the page layout as standard HTML tags, and includes the content of other JSP pages using the custom tag insert, shown underlined in the code example.

<%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/tlds/taglib.tld" prefix="template" %>
    <title><template:insert parameter="title" /></title>

<body bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<table width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
    <td colspan="2">
      <template:insert parameter="banner" />
    <td width="20%" valign="top">
      <template:insert parameter="sidebar" />
    <!--- ... and so on ... -->

Code Example 4.10 The Template JSP Page for the Layout Shown in Figure 4.8

The JSP page includes the page named by the insert tag's parameter attribute at the point where the tag occurs. A separate screen definitions file for the application provides values for these parameters for each screen name.

The templating service is a single servlet that processes all screens. A servlet mapping routes all requests with URLs matching *.screen to a TemplateServlet, which assembles and serves the requested screen. Code Example 4.11 shows the definition of the screen called main.screen. The screen definitions file defines template.jsp as its template file and defines a series of screens. Each screen has a name and a list of values for the parameters in the template file. The templating service replaces each insert tag in the template file with the contents of the subview named by the tag's parameter attribute. For example, the templating service replaces all instances of <template:insert parameter="banner"/> with the contents of "/banner.jsp". The result is a fully-rendered screen.

  	<parameter key="title">Welcome to the BluePrints Petstore</parameter>

  	<parameter key="banner" value="/banner.jsp"/>
  	<parameter key="sidebar" value="/sidebar.jsp"/>
  	<parameter key="body" value="/main.jsp"/>
  	<parameter key="mylist" value="/mylist.jsp"/>
  	<parameter key="advicebanner" value="/advice_banner.jsp"/>
  	<parameter key="footer" value="/footer.jsp"/>
  	<!-- ... more screen definitions... -->

Code Example 4.11 Screen Definition of Sample Application's "Main" View

The templating service described here is part of the sample application's Web Application Framework. The templating service is reusable as a component in other applications. Its design is based on the Composite View design pattern, which assembles a view from reusable subviews. For more information on the Composite View design pattern, please see Chapter 11.

4.4.4 Web-Tier MVC Model Design

An MVC application model both represents business data and implements business logic. Many J2EE applications implement their application models as enterprise beans, which offer scalability, concurrency, load balancing, automatic resource management, and other benefits. Simpler J2EE applications may implement the model as a collection of Web-tier JavaBeans components used directly by JSP pages or servlets. JavaBeans components provide quick access to data, while enterprise beans provide access to shared business logic and data.

Notice that the "application model" in Figure 4.5 on page 107 is generic: It implies no particular technology or tier. The application model is simply the programmatic interface to the application's business logic. Model API design and model technology selection are both important design considerations.

Section on page 369 describes MVC model design considerations and patterns.

4.4.5 Web Application Frameworks

As the Model 2 architecture has become more popular, quite a number of Web-tier application frameworks have appeared. Some are vendor-specific frameworks integrated with specific servers and tools; others are freely available, open-source projects. Benefits of Web-tier application frameworks appear on page 93. Three frameworks of particular interest are:

4.4.6 Separating Business Logic from Presentation

Placing business logic and presentation code in separate software layers is good design practice. The business layer provides only application functionality, with no reference to presentation. The presentation layer presents the data and input prompts to the user (or to another system), delegating application functionality to the business layer.

Separating business logic from presentation has several important benefits:

4.4.7 Web-Tier State

Data that a Web-tier component uses to create a response is called state. Examples of such data include the inventory data needed by a JSP page that lists items for sale, the contents of an online shopping cart maintained by a servlet, and the timestamp placed on an incoming request by a servlet filter.

State maintenance decisions have an enormous impact on application performance, availability, and scalability. Such decisions include choosing the tier to manage state, selecting the appropriate scope for each item of state, and effectively tracking conversational state in a distributed environment.

Note that the J2EE platform specification does not require that session state be recoverable after a crash or restart of a component container. Some J2EE implementations provide, as an extension, containers that can recover session state after a restart. Choosing such an implementation can simplify application design, but makes an application less portable, because it relies on a non-standard extension. State Scope

Each item of Web-tier state has scope, which determines the accessibility and lifetime of the item. Web-tier state is accessible to servlets, servlet filters, and JSP pages. Briefly, Web-tier state can be maintained in four scopes:

Application scope is "global memory" for a Web application. Application-scope state is stored in the Web container's ServletContext object. (See the caveat on using context attributes in distributable servlets on page 126.) All servlets in an application share objects in application scope. The servlet developer is responsible for thread safety when accessing objects in application scope. An inventory object in application scope, for example, is accessible to all servlets, servlet filters, and JSP pages in the application. State in application scope exists for the lifetime of the application, unless it is explicitly removed.

Session scope contains data specific to a user session. HTTP is a "stateless" protocol, meaning that it has no way of distinguishing users from one another or for maintaining data on users' behalf. Session attributes are named object references that are associated with a user session. The servlet API allows a developer to create a session attribute and access or update it in subsequent requests. Session-scope state for an HttpServlet is stored in the Web container's HttpSession object (available from the HttpServletRequest argument to the service method). State in session scope is accessible to all Web components in the application and across multiple servlet invocations. However, it is accessible only within an individual user session. An online shopping cart is an example of data in session scope, because the contents of the cart are specific to a single client session and available across multiple server requests. A session ends when it is explicitly closed, when it times out after a period of inactivity, or when its container is shut down or crashes. Unless removed explicitly, state in session scope lasts until the session ends.

Request scope contains data specific to an individual server request, and is discarded when the service method returns. A Web component can read or modify data in request scope and then "forward" the request to another component. The component to which the request is forwarded then has access to the state. State in request scope is stored in a ServletRequest object, so it is accessible to any component receiving the request. Note that the values of query string parameters and form variables are also in request scope. For example, when a servlet places a timestamp in a ServletRequest and then forwards the request to another servlet, the timestamp is in request scope.

Page scope, applicable only to JSP pages, contains data that are only valid in the context of a single page. Page scope state is stored in a JSP page's PageContext object. When one JSP page forwards to or includes another, each page defines its own scope. Page scope state is discarded when the program flow of control exits the page. Performance Implications of State Scope

Selecting the appropriate scope for an item of state depends largely on the purpose of that item in the application. It would not make sense, for example, to place a shopping cart class in application scope, because then all shoppers would have to share the same cart. Shopping carts, because they are specific to a user session, are most appropriately kept in session scope. But shopping cart contents maintained in Client-tier cookies would be in request scope, because they would be transmitted to the Web tier with each request. Maintaining session state in cookies is discouraged, even though this approach may be more easily scalable than using session attributes. See "Avoid Using Cookies Directly," starting on page 122 for more details.

Each state scope has implications for scalability, performance, and reliability. State in page or request scope is less likely to cause trouble, since such data are usually not large or long-lived enough to cause resource problems. State in application scope is usually manageable if it is read-only. Entity enterprise beans are the recommended technology for maintaining writable application-scope state. Entity beans are designed for scalable, concurrent access to shared data and logic. See Section 5.4 on page 142 for more information.

State in session scope has the greatest impact on Web application scalability and performance. Separate session-scope state accumulates for each connected user, unlike application-scope state, which is shared between all users and servlets. Also, session-scope state exists across requests, unlike request-scope state, which is discarded when a response is served. How the Web Container Manages Session State

Application servers typically track user sessions with some combination of cookies and/or URL rewriting to store a session ID on the client. The session ID identifies the session, and the server is responsible for associating each HttpServletRequest with its corresponding HttpSession object. The J2EE server handles the details of using cookies and URL rewriting. The section "Maintaining Client State" in The J2EE Tutorial explains in detail how to manage Web-tier session state. Web-Tier State Recommendations

When using enterprise beans, it's best to maintain session state with stateful session beans in the EJB tier. For Web-only applications, maintain the state in the Web tier as session attributes (using HttpSession). The following sections discuss the rationale for these recommendations. Maintain Session State with Stateful Session Beans

Maintaining session state in stateful session beans is a BluePrints best practice. Web-tier components can access the session state through the stateful session bean's component interface and store just the reference as a session attribute. You can maximize the runtime performance of this approach by choosing a J2EE server product that permits use of local EJB interfaces from co-located Web components.

Reasons to prefer stateful session beans over other approaches to maintaining session state include:

For example, the sample application stores session state in stateful session beans ShoppingClientControllerEJB and EJBClientControllerEJB. For more on stateful session beans, see Chapter 5. Maintain Web-Tier Session State in Session Attributes

Applications that don't use enterprise beans should maintain session state in session attributes, using HttpSession's methods getAttribute and setAttribute. These methods allow the Web container to maintain the state in a way that is most effective for that particular application and server. Session attributes free the developer from the details of session state management, and ensure portability and scalability of Web components.

The alternative to using session attributes is to create your own solution. The Web container (via HttpSession) provides services such as cookie management, session IDs, and so on. Writing custom Web-tier state management code is usually redundant. Don't make work for yourself!

For more guidelines, see Section 4.4.7 on page 116, and also the section "Maintaining Client State" in The J2EE Tutorial.

Advantages of using session attributes include:

But session attributes have these important disadvantages: Share Data among Servlets and JSP Pages with JavaBeans Components

The standard JSP tag useBean accesses an attribute in application, session, request, or page scope as a JavaBean component. Standard actions setProperty and getProperty get and set the attributes' properties using JavaBeans property accessors. Servlets have access to these attributes as well, so data shared between JSP pages and servlets is best maintained in JavaBeans classes. Code Example 4.12 shows a servlet setting a session-scope attribute of type UserDataBean, naming it UserData.

public void service(HttpServletRequest req,
            HttpServletResponse res) throws... {
  HttpSession session = req.getSession();
  UserDataBean userData = new userData;
  session.setAttribute("userData", userData);

Code Example 4.12 Setting a Session Attribute's Value to a JavaBean Instance

When servlets are called, or the same servlet is called again, it can access the UserDataBean using the method HttpSession.getAttribute, as shown in Code Example 4.13.

HttpSession session = req.getSession();
UserDataBean userData = (UserDataBean)session.getAttribute("userData");

String userName = userData.getUsername();

Code Example 4.13 Accessing a Session Attribute JavaBean Instance from a Servlet

A JSP page can access the UserDataBean using the standard tag useBean, as shown in Code Example 4.14. This creates the named JavaBean instance if it does not already exist. The remainder of Code Example 4.14 shows how to get or set the properties of the userData attribute by using getProperty and setProperty.

<!-- Declare that the page uses session attribute UserData -->

<jsp:useBean id="userData" type="UserDataBean" scope="session"/>

<!-- get the userData property userData-->
<jsp:getProperty name="userData" property="username"/>

<!-- set all userData properties to values of corresponding
   request parameter names -->
<jsp:setProperty name="userData" property="*"/>

<!-- set userData property "username" to value of request
   parameter "username" -->
<jsp:setProperty name="userData" property="username"/>

<!-- set userData property "username" to value of request
   parameter "new_user_name" -->
<jsp:setProperty name="userData" property="username"

<!-- set userData property "username" to string "Unknown User" -->
<jsp:setProperty name="userData" property="username"
   value="Unknown User"/>

Code Example 4.14 Using JavaBean Properties in a JSP Page

These examples show how to share information between components in session scope. These techniques work similarly for application, page, and request scopes. Avoid Using Cookies Directly

Avoid using cookies directly for storing session state in most applications. Implementation details of session state storage are best left to the application server. Using either a stateful session bean or a Web container's HttpSession implementation can provide reliable access to session state through a portable interface. Using the standard interface saves the development time of implementing and maintaining a custom solution.

Disadvantages to using cookies for session state include:

Exceptions to this guideline exist. For example, a browser cookie could contain a user's login name and locale to facilitate sign on. Because of the drawbacks described here, cookies should be used to maintain session state only when there is a clear reason to do so.

4.4.8 Distributable Web Applications

The J2EE platform provides optional support for distributed Web applications. A distributed Web application runs simultaneously in multiple Web containers. When a Web application is marked distributable in its deployment descriptor, the container may (but is not required to) create multiple instances of the servlet, in multiple JVM instances, and potentially on multiple machines. Distributing a servlet improves scalability, because it allows Web request load to be spread across multiple servers. It can also improve availability by providing transparent failover between servlet instances. Distributed Servlet Instances

By default, only one servlet instance per servlet definition is allowed for servlets that are neither in an application marked distributable, nor implement SingleThreadModel. Servlets in applications marked distributable have exactly one servlet instance per servlet definition for each Java virtual machine (JVM). The container may create and pool multiple instances of a servlet that implements SingleThreadModel, but using SingleThreadModel is discouraged.

At any particular time, session attributes for a given session are local to a particular JVM. The distributed runtime environment therefore acts to ensure that all requests associated with a given session are handled by exactly one JVM at a time. A servlet's session state may migrate to, or be failed-over to, some other JVM between requests. Distributed Conversational State

Distributing multiple instances of a servlet across multiple JVM instances raises the issue of how to support conversational state. If each request a user makes can be routed to a different server, how can the system track that user's session state?

J2EE product providers solve this problem in different ways. One approach, called sticky server affinity, associates a particular client with a particular servlet instance for the duration of the session. This solves the session state problem, because each session is "owned" by a particular servlet. But this approach can compromise availability, because when a servlet, JVM instance, or server crashes, all of the associated sessions can be lost. Sticky server affinity can also make load balancing more difficult, because sessions are "stuck" on the servers where they started.

Another approach to solving the distributed conversational state problem is state migration. State migration serializes and moves or copies session state between servlet instances. This solution maintains the availability benefits of servlet distribution and facilitates load balancing, because sessions can be moved from more- to less-loaded servers. But state migration can increase network traffic between clustered servers. Each time a client updates session state, all redundant copies of that state must be updated. If session state is stored in a database (as is often the case), the database can become a performance bottleneck. The containers must also cooperate to resolve simultaneous update collisions, where two clients accessing the same session (one browser window opened from another, for example) update different copies of the same session state.

The J2EE platform specification gives the J2EE product provider the opportunity to add value by solving the issue of distributed conversational state in the implementation while maintaining the consistent J2EE interface. A good solution to this problem can be a selling point for a J2EE vendor. Designers considering a Web-tier-only architecture for high-performance applications should be sure to understand how prospective J2EE product providers address this issue.

Stateful session beans are designed specifically for handling distributed conversational state, but do so in the EJB tier, rather than in the Web tier. See Section for more details. Distributable Servlet Restrictions

Servlets used in a distributable application require some additional constraints. Most are necessary conditions for session state migration. These restrictions also apply for code in JSP pages and custom tags.

Copyright 2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.