Aug 16

Network traffic sniffing: tcpdump on Linux + Wireshark on Windows

Reading time: 2 – 2 minutes

From the Windows box using the CLI console (cmd):

ssh USER@HOST "tcpdump -s 0 -U -n -w - -i NETIF FILTER" | "c:\Program Files\Wireshark\Wireshark.exe" -k -i -

# USER - remote user of the linux box
# HOST - host address of the remote linux box
# NETIF - network interface to snif in the remote linux box
# FILTER - (optional) rules for filtering traffic to capture

Use case:

C:\Windows\System32\OpenSSH>ssh root@192.168.4.74 "tcpdump -s 0 -U -n -w - -i eno2 udp and not port 53" | "c:\Program Files\Wireshark\Wireshark.exe" -k -i -

Let me present a rare use case of this useful trick. I use a QNAP NAS as a gateway in my home network, where I have 5 NICs. So it’s really useful to snif traffic remotly but I have no tcpdump packet in the system. What I did is use tcpdump as Docker container and finally the commands is like that.

# sniffing SIP traffic (port 5060) on interface eth0
# remote linux host (QNAP NAS) use SSH port 55222
# docker container is created and when work is done is removed
C:\Windows\System32\OpenSSH>ssh -p 55222 admin@10.2.0.1 "cd /share/Container/tcpdump && docker run --rm --net=host corfr/tcpdump -s 0 -U -n -w - -i eth0 not port 22 and port 5060" | "c:\Program Files\Wireshark\Wireshark.exe" -k -i -

Jul 07

rp_filter Linux kernel feature

Reading time: 1 – 2 minutes

It’s just an IP spoofing protection which is by default enabled on Linux kernels. When it’s value is ‘1’ means that all IP address which are not directly routable and received form a network interface they are directly discarded.

So, if you want to scan a range of IP address in your LAN which not belong to that interface address space when packets from IP addresses are received they are going to be discarded by the kernel. So, take that into account when you have those “unusual” requirements.

It can be enable/disabled by all interfaces or just one:

root@mini9:/proc/sys/net/ipv4# cat ./conf/all/rp_filter
1
root@mini9:/proc/sys/net/ipv4# cat ./conf/ztly5q4n37/rp_filter
1

May 27

DRY DHCP Client: request and IP address to the DHCP server without a DHCP Client

Reading time: < 1 minute

When you want to discover LAN metadata without being part of that network. So, when you want to discover network address range, gateway, DNS IPs, DHCP server IPs, etc. this simple nmap parameter will help you so much.

# nmap --script broadcast-dhcp-discover

Starting Nmap 7.60 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2021-05-19 15:07 CEST
Pre-scan script results:
| broadcast-dhcp-discover:
|   Response 1 of 1:
|     IP Offered: 192.168.1.127
|     DHCP Message Type: DHCPOFFER
|     Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
|     Renewal Time Value: 4d00h00m00s
|     Rebinding Time Value: 7d00h00m00s
|     IP Address Lease Time: 8d00h00m00s
|     Server Identifier: 192.168.1.1
|     Router: 192.168.1.1
|_    Domain Name Server: 8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4
WARNING: No targets were specified, so 0 hosts scanned.
Nmap done: 0 IP addresses (0 hosts up) scanned in 1.43 seconds

May 26

Alive: shell script for alive monitoring using PING

Reading time: < 1 minute

Simple shell script based on bash which monitor a host with command line ping. Just bash and ping are the unique dependencies. Only state change are going to be printed:

#!/bin/bash

IP="THE_IP_TO_MONITOR"
STATE="offline"

show_state()
{
  echo "$(date '+%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S') - " + $STATE;
}

while true;
do
  ping -c 4 $IP > /dev/null 2>&1
  if [ "$?" = "0" ]; then
    if [ "$STATE" = "offline" ];
    then
      STATE="online"
      show_state
    fi
  else
    if [ "$STATE" = "online" ];
    then
      STATE="offline"
      show_state
    fi
  fi
  sleep 10
done

Nov 27

Get Linux system process list without ‘ps’ command

Reading time: < 1 minute

When you work with embedded systems sometimes you would feel happy to have a Linux box until you discover there are plenty of basic things that you don’t have available, the extreme of that could be the ‘ps’ command which is used most of the time for checking if any process is running . Maybe you know that thanks the /proc filesystem there is access to the source of the information.

Keep next command close for solving this inconvenience he next time:

find /proc -mindepth 2 -maxdepth 2 -name exe -exec ls -lh {} \; 2>/dev/null

Jun 11

Nested byobu, re-assigning shortcuts

Reading time: 2 – 2 minutes

I’m a byobu user for a long time, I love it for many reasons. But this is just a quick tip for extreme users like me. I mean people who use byobu for local consoles with remote byobu sessions running on top of SSH, for instance.

When prefix key combinations has to be sent to the remote host we have to press “Control + a + a” and finally the command that we want to send to the remote systems. This is not comfortable many times. So, I modified my configuration file for changing the prefix when I want to send remote commands to the nested byobu.

This is going to work this way:

Control + a

    • as a prefix for local byobu session.

Control + b

    as a prefix for remote byobu session

Take a look on this screen capture where you can see byobu status bars stacked.

If you find useful the configuration that I described the only thing that you have to do is modify the configuration file: ~/.byobu/keybindings.tmux

unbind-key -n C-a 
set -g prefix C-a
set -g prefix2 F12
unbind-key -n C-b 
bind-key -n C-b send-prefix

I hope this is useful as it is for me.

May 02

HTTPie – command line HTTP client

Reading time: 1 – 2 minutes

I imagine you are used to using curl for many command line scripts, tests, and much more things. I did the same but some weeks ago I discovered HTTPie which is the best substitute that I’ve ever found for curl. Of course, it’s also available for a lot of Linux distributions, Windows, and Mac. But I used it with docker which is much more transparent for the operative system and easy to update. To be more precise I use next alias trick for using this tool:

alias http='sudo docker run -it --rm --net=host clue/httpie'

Official website: httpie.org

Let me paste some highlights about HTTPie:

  • Sensible defaults
  • Expressive and intuitive command syntax
  • Colorized and formatted terminal output
  • Built-in JSON support
  • Persistent sessions
  • Forms and file uploads
  • HTTPS, proxies, and authentication support
  • Support for arbitrary request data and headers
  • Wget-like downloads
  • Extensions
  • Linux, macOS, and Windows support

From the tool webpage a nice comparison about how HTTPie looks like versus curl.